Bahasa Raya

Volume 1 Issue 1

February 2000

SELAMAT DATANG! Welcome to our first issue of Bahasa Raya. Our subscribers come from all over the world, with a large concentration of subscribers from Australia, where this ezine originates.

This ezine is in simple "easy-to-read" format. In the beginning, we have a "bare bones" approach in issue 1, so that you may all become familiar with the kind of information and items of interest that can be included in such a publication. We hope, after this issue, to hear from many of you by way of feedback, and from some, we hope to receive items of interest and all kinds of contributions for our March issue.

With your suggestions and contributions, we hope that this e-zine will grow and blossom into a significant publication, which unites Indonesian teachers everywhere and provides great value as resource and reference material to us all.


Table of Contents



Table of Contents in this issue:

Dari Meja Redaksi

Teaching Tips For Primary Teachers

Teaching Tips For Secondary+ Teachers

Comprehension on Myths & Legends For Senior Students

Reading & Activities on "Street Kids" For Senior Students

Great Indonesian Web Sites To Visit - Reviews

Indonesian Jokes For Aussie Kids

What's New at Kambing? Free Sample - WHIP!!

FYI - For Your Information.

Up And Coming Events

Sample Assignments



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Dari Meja Redaksi

Kambing International Press is pleased to present to you this first issue of our new electronic magazine, "Bahasa Raya". We hope that you will enjoy this first offering and find it, not only very useful, but inspiring in your teaching of Bahasa Indonesia in your classroom, wherever it may be in the world!

In the coming months, I invite you all to become active members of this free newsletter and to contribute articles, lesson plans, practical suggestions and important events connected with Indonesian, for the benefit of all of our subscribers.

We particularly encourage overseas teachers of Indonesian to share with teachers in Australia, perhaps a precis of your teaching conditions and the status of your subject in your own country, which I'm sure would be very interesting for our subscribers.

We all know that Indonesia has suffered and is still suffering in these turbulent times, but within the context of this small web site, we'd like to do our best to promote cultural understanding and focus only on non-political, linguistic & cultural pursuits. I therefore invite you to submit non-political items only for publication. (There are other forums for such submissions and we do not wish to become one.)

As we are private enterprise and not a government body, we feel that we are able to reach many more teachers via this exciting new medium. We hope to become a regular surfing destination for all of you internet users. We have great plans to add many new features and to update the site regularly, throughout the year. It will, I hope, become an exciting "Indophile" zone. By the way, some email feedback is very welcome at any time, but particularly after receiving this first issue. If you let me know what you think, I can continue to improve and make sure that we can provide more & more value to you.

We will notify you of any changes in our "What's New At Kambing" section of this newsletter each month. So keep yourself "berup-to-datelah", as some students of mine used to say.

I will be creating the bulk of this newlsetter to begin with, (don't worry, I've finally left teaching), but hope that, as months go by, many of you will submit your items for inclusion via email-it's sooooo easy!!

Who knows? Maybe thousands of you will submit items :), mungkin ada terlalu banyak, tetapi saya bermimpi saja :) :) :) (I've just learnt that this symbol :) means a smile . Did you know that?)

Terima Kasih

I must thank Mal Lines, from Parafield Gardens High School in SA for contributing his valuable ideas for this ezine and Bevan Cordy, from St Patrick's College in NSW, for being the first subscriber to WHIP, online! Also to Melissa Gould-Drakely, from Macarthur Anglican School, for being one of the first to contribute and to Pak Stephanus Dharmanto, for his really interesting literature piece, about myths & legends.

Well, sekian dulu, Selamat membaca dan mengajar!

Dari Redaksi

Suzanne Weatherburn


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Jokes - Pertanyaan Dan Jawaban Lucu

Durian berduri. Rambutan berambut. Anggur berapa?

Lima ribu rupiah sekilo.

Mengapa ikan bisa berenang?

Sebab ada air.

Apa bedaanya bintang dengan binatang?

Satu "a"

Pulau apa yang disukai lebah?

Madura (madu-ra)

Mengapa keu donat berlubang di tengah?

Kalau berlubang di pinggir dikira dimakan tikus.

Sakit apa yang tidak dipelajari di fakultas kedokteran?

Sakit hati.

Kalau guru minum susu kerbau ada berapa huruf di sana?

Tidak ada huruf "u" pada kata "di sana"




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Teaching Tips For Primary Teachers

Develop a Routine Ritual in Your Indonesian Classes

Whether you teach in a kindergarten, or in year six, it is really beneficial to develop a routine within your Indonesian classroom teaching. Children thrive on routines, especially when they find that they have mastered the routine you have developed for them. It gives them a sense of accomplishment, a sense of belonging, predictability and security. They involve an element of ritualism and adopt simple rote learning techniques.

There are an infinite number of routines you could develop, and you will have to decide on what suits your personality. For example, I know of one Indonesian teacher, who starts every lesson with physical exercises,

"Senam pagi" ( or "calisthenics"). With this routine, he not only teaches his students directions and verbs, but also about culture. As the children become aware of what routines an Indonesian school student might go through, they come to appreciate this routine as a valuable "acting out" of life as a child in Indonesia.

Of course, if you are like me, you may not be fit enough, or maybe physical approaches like this one, do not grab you! Perhaps for you, you could introduce your classes to a greeting song, like "Selamat Pagi, Bu" or with the older ones, maybe a verse of "Indonesian Raya", the National Anthem.

Another possible routine is poetry. You could teach the children a simple poem and have them recite it back to you each time you meet, until they know it off by heart. Primary school children just love it when they have mastered a poem in another language! Or you might just read a poem to them, to let them get used to the sounds of Indonesian.

There are other possibilities, like blackboard games to begin each lesson, perhaps if you teach in a religious school, a prayer in Indonesian might be appropriate. With upper primary students "20 questions" is a great one to begin each lesson. You should make sure that core information remains unchanged (say 5 or 6 questions which never change, like "What is the capital of Indonesia?"), even though you add new questions each time, for variety. Other variations on routines could include dancing, chanting, whispering games, telling jokes in Indonesian, students asking you 20 questions, charades, spelling bees, pairwork quick conversations, bingo, reciting the alphabet, etc.

Of course, needless to say that your routine could be either at the beginning of the lesson, or at the end of the lesson by way of closure. You could even have it right in the middle of the lesson, if it's a long one, to break it up and provide some entertainment value.

If readers could share any routines that they found to be particularly valuable, please submit via email for inclusion next time.





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Indonesian LanguageTime Capsule

I'm sure that you've considered doing a longitudinal study of your student's language skills, but have you ever formally done something about it?

I would suggest an Indonesian Language Time Capsule would be a very useful activity from both your perspective, as the teacher, but also from your student's perspective as the student. You could do this over a three to four year period, depending on how long you would be teaching them within your faculty or school.

If you decided, for example, to take your current year 8 students (or your first year university students), and you managed to secure a very good container, like a metal box, you could then fill it with work samples from the student. You would make sure that you covered all four macro skills of listening, reading, writing and speaking, and then lock up the box for a year. (You could include in this box, perhaps, a sample of a piece of work that they found particularly challenging, or that they were particularly proud of, and notate the contents and why they were chosen. You could provide your own feedback and/or comments to put into the box too. Not to mention, photographs of class activities in Indonesian, too.)

A year later, (and then another year later after that), you can get the student to add items again to the box. The student is not allowed to look at last year's content and only after the three years is up, is he/she allowed to peruse the contents.

Hopefully, after three years, their language skills have dramatically improved and looking through the time capsule, should give the student a real buzz and confidence boost. As for you, it should reaffirm that your teaching has definitely been effective!

Suzanne Weatherburn



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 Myths & Legends - A Discovery Tour


Cerita Lama, Cerita Modern, dan Cerita Absurd
Oleh: Stephanus Dharmanto

Dunia Kisah atau cerita nampaknya telah menjadi bagian dari kehidupan kita sehari-hari. Di Indonesia, sejak kecil, anak-anak telah diperkenalkan oleh kakek-nenek, ayah-ibu, pengasuh, atau guru, kepada cerita-cerita lama, yaitu dongeng (tales), cerita rakyat (folk tales), legenda (legends), dan mitos (myths). Contoh-contoh cerita-cerita lama misalnya kisah pangeran yang dikutuk (cursed) menjadi katak (Pangeran Katak), putri yang dikutuk menjadi arca (statue) (Loro Jonggrang), anak durhaka (prodigal son) dan kapalnya yang dikutuk menjadi batu (Si Malin Kundang), perahu menangkup yang kemudian berubah menjadi Gunung Tangkuban Perahu (Sangkuriang) dll. Banyak juga
kisah-kisah dari mancanegara seperti Putri Sepatu Kaca (Cinderella), Putri Tidur (Sleeping Beauty), Putri Salju (Snow White), dll. Juga ada komik/ cergam (cerita bergambar) dan film yang juga diambil dari khazanah (treasury) cerita lama, misalnya film kartun Aladin sebenarnya disadur (adapted) dari Kisah 1001 Malam (The 1001 Arabian Nights).
Tokoh utama cerita-cerita lama biasanya Pangeran dan Putri (Prince & Princess), Raja dan Ratu (King & Queen), Kepala Suku (Chieftain), Pahlawan (Hero). Mereka "orang-orang besar dan penting," yaitu orang-orang dari kalangan elit.
Alur cerita (plot) sering dimulai dengan "Syahdan" (once upon a time) dan diakhiri dengan "Pangeran menikahi Putri, serta hidup bahagia selama-lamanya". Tentu saja ini pola umum dengan berbagai variasi dan improvisasi/modifikasi. Alur cerita (plot) penuh dengan unsur "kebetulan" (coincidence) serta romantis, idealistis (misalnya setting digambarkan sebagai negeri yang subur-makmur dengan raja yang arif-bijaksana), supranatural dan metafisikal (ada peri [fairy] dan bidadari (angel), nenek sihir (witch) yang bisa terbang, binatang yang bisa bicara seperti manusia, dan lain-lain.
Warna cerita sering "hitam-putih": pembaca mudah membedakan tokoh yang baik (biasanya juga digambarkan tampan/cantik) dari yang jahat (biasanya digambarkan buruk-rupa). Kehidupan dalam cerita itu polos, lugu dan sederhana: yang baik akhirnya pasti menang dan yang jahat akan mendapat hukuman yang setimpal atas kejahatannya. Cerita ini mudah dikisahkan dan dimengerti/dipahami, sehingga digemari anak-anak, sedang orangtua gemar menceritakannya.

Ketika anak-anak Indonesia masuk sekolah menengah (high school), mereka mulai diperkenalkan kepada cerita-cerita modern yang umumnya berupa cerpen (cerita pendek) dan novel. Termasuk dalam kategori ini misalnya karya-karya Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, Achdiat Karta Mihardja, Nh. Dini, Ahmad Tohari, JB
Mangunwijaya, dll. Di luar sekolah banyak cerita-cerita modern yang populer (karena itu disebut cerpen atau novel 'pop') dimuat di koran dan majalah, atau dijual di toko buku, misalnya karya-karya Teguh Esha, Ashadi Siregar, Marga T, Mira W, V. Lestari, dll. Lebih banyak lagi cerita-cerita modern dari "Barat" (maksudnya negeri-negeri Eropa, Kanada, Amerika, Australia, dll.) berupa film di bioskop atau serial TV tapi judulnya terlalu banyak untuk disebutkan di sini.
Tokoh utama "kisah modern" ini pada umumnya adalah orang biasa (commoner) bukan ningrat (nobility), raja/ratu, pangeran/putri. Mereka adalah pria dan wanita biasa dengan masalah dan pergumulan hidup sehari-hari. Kisah modern ini lebih memakai logika, rasionalitas, dan realisme, sehingga terasa seperti "kisah nyata" (true story) yang bisa saja terjadi saat ini dan di sini, atau mungkin saja akan terjadi entah kapan entah di mana, atau barangkali malah pernah sungguh-sungguh terjadi (really happened), seolah cuma-cuma disamarkan saja nama tokoh dan setting-nya. Tergantung pada pembaca/arget audience-nya, alur kisah modern ini ada yang sederhana dan "hitam-putih", namun ada juga yang "serius": artinya, mengandung kritik sosial yang tajam, atau drama psikologis yang rumit dan kompleks. Arah (direction) dan akhir (ending) cerita lebih sulit ditebak: si tampan/cantik ternyata orang yang jahat sekali, tokoh utama justru kalah dan jadi korban (victimised & loser), dsb. Cerita bisa saja berakhir bahagia (happy ending), tapi sering pula berakhir dengan tragedi.

Masih ada satu jenis cerita lain. Yang menarik, kisah jenis ini mirip atau mengandung unsur-unsur cerita lama dan cerita modern, namun sekaligus juga berbeda. Gaya bertuturnya (narrative style) sekilas terasa "main-main" (playful), tapi sebenarnya temanya cukup dalam, kritiknya cukup tajam, dan konfliknya cukup rumit. Contohnya adalah karya-karya Putu Wijaya. Kalau Anda simak beberapa contoh di bawah ini, nyata sekali bedanya dari kedua jenis kisah di atas (Cerita Lama dan Cerita Modern):

Tokoh Anwar dalam cerpen Babi minta dokter bedah memotong tangannya karena setiap kali menuliskan namanya, selalu keseleo dan menulis kata "babi". Dokter bedah tidak mau memotong tangan (kanan) itu, sebaliknya menuduh bahwa tangan kiri Anwarlah yang berulah:
"Ini politik. Tangan kiri saudara iri kepada tangan kanan yang pakai jam dan cincin kawin. Lalu ia mencoba membuat sabotase. Sementara saudara menulis ia menutup muka saudara, lalu menggosok tulisan 'Anwar' menjadi 'Babi'!"
Dengan diagnostik alá seorang psikolog, dokter bedah akhirnya berhasil membuat tangan kanan itu menuliskan nama "Anwar" dengan benar tapi kemudian masalah tidak berakhir di situ: saat membaca nama "Anwar" kini justru mulut Anwarlah yang mengucapkan "BABI!" dengan suara menggeledek!

Cerpen 1981 ditulis pada bulan Desember 1980 saat John Lennon baru saja tertembak mati dan jutaan fansnya mengutuk David Mark Chapman si pembunuh yang ternyata sakit jiwa. Dalam cerpen "1981", tokoh Chapman justru digambarkan sebagai "tokoh heroik" dan di akhir cerpen Chapman masuk ke dalam laras pistolku (aku = narator) dan si "aku" siap menembak orang yang aku cintai di Jalan Thamrin (jalan utama di Jakarta).

Dalam cerpen Mimpi tokoh Pian ingin bermimpi makan enak di Pecenongan (Chinatown di Jakarta) tapi dia malah bermimpi menelan Tugu Monas, kemudian mimpi terdampar ke pulau tempat pembuangan orang-orang berpenyakit kusta, mimpi dijamu Idi Amin (diktator Uganda di tahun 1970an), lalu diberondong senapan mesin oleh para pengawalnya, tapi (hahaha) Pian tidak apa-apa karena cuma mimpi. Tapi dalam rentetan kejadian selanjutnya Putu Wijaya mengaburkan batas-batas antara mimpi, fantasi dan kenyataan. Pian naik ke atas pohon, kencing dan berak di sana, memecahkan lampu-lampu, ngebut (speeding) melawan arus lalu-lintas, mobilnya menabrak sebuah tangki bensin hingga meledak dan mengakibatkan sebuah rumah sakit terbakar, dan beberapa warung berantakan.
Apa makna cerpen ini? Sungguh absurd!

Untuk memahami cerpen-cerpen Putu Wijaya, kita harus terlebih dahulu mempelajari "falsafah cerpen" Putu yang unik:
Cerpen adalah bagaikan sebuah mimpi (a story is like a dream, either a sweet dream or a nightmare).
Urutan dan jalinan (cerita) tidak terlalu penting, karena kadang-kadang ada dan kadangkala tidak (the plot is insignificant, sometimes may be non-existent).
Yang utama adalah pekabaran yang dibawanya, daya pukau, daya magis, tamsil, ibarat, tikaman jiwa, firasat dan berbagai efek yang diberondongkannya... (most important is the message, the atmosphere, mood, and effects the story creates in the minds of the reader)
Ia bisa gamblang, jelas secara mendetail dan persis melukiskan apa yang akan terjadi, tetapi bisa juga buram sama sekali bagai sebuah ramalan yang memerlukan tafsir. (the story can be clear and may depict details, but sometimes may be totally blurred, and 'hieroglyhic')
Cerpen adalah "teror mental" (the story is like a 'mental terror' to its reader: intense and makes a deep impression)
Arti cerpen pada akhirnya tidak hanya ditentukan dari pengarangnya, tetapi juga dari siapa pembacanya. (the ultimate meaning of the story is not determined only by its author, but also by its reader)

Jadi, pembaca yang politis (politically-oriented) akan melihat dengan tajam aspek politik dalam cerpen-cerpen tersebut. Pembaca yang suka psikologi akan kagum pada aspek psikologis tokoh-tokohnya, sedang pembaca yang gemar hal-hal yang absurd (absurdity) akan melihat batas-batas dunia nyata dan dunia mimpi/fantasi mengabur (blur) dan melebur (blend) dengan indah, sementara sosok-sosok abstrak dan surealistik muncul dengan garang. Dengan demikian, cerpen menjadi terbuka untuk berbagai penafsiran (multi-interpretation), tergantung pembacanya.

Belum ada istilah yang "pas" untuk cerpen-cerpen Putu Wijaya ini: Cerita Pasca modern (postmodernist)? Cerpen Ultramodern? Cerpen Kontemporer? Cerpen Absurd? Terserah, mau disebut apa, tapi saya anjurkan Anda membacanya ...

Kumpulan Cerpen Putu Wijaya antara lain

1. Gres (Balai Pustaka 1982)
2. Bom (Balai Pustaka 1982)
3. Bomb (University of Wisconsin CSEAS, Madison, 1982)
4. Protes (Grafiti 1994)
5. Blok (Pustaka Firdaus 1994)
6. Darah (Balai Pustaka 1995)
7. Yel (Pustaka Firdaus 1996)



1. After carefully reading and translating the text, you are urged to read the short stories listed 1-7.

Think about the myths and legends you grew up with and decide which titles your list would contain.

2. Having listed your own famous myths & legends, write a brief summary in Indonesian about the virtues of each story and why you

recommend the foreign student of English should read them.

3. Study the title of the writing and discuss why it is appropriate and what the author is referring to exactly when he says:

"cerita absurd".

4. Choose a short story in Indonesian to summarize into English, particularly focusing on the hidden meanings behind the story and present your findings to the class in an oral presentation, designed to teach your listeners all about that particular author and his/her story.


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contributed by Melissa Gould-Drakeley



Jumlah anak jalanan yang kian meroyak karena krisis moneter (krismon) semakin banyak. Akibat kemiskinan dan kelaparan mereka terpaksa menjadi tukang lap mobil jalanan, tukang parkir, asongan pengamen nyanyian atau pencuri. Mereka tidak senang dengan nasibnya sebagai anak jalanan. Sebenarnya mereka mau hadir di sekolah tetapi harga buku, seragam dan biaya sekolah jauh terlalu mahal. Mereka hanya mendapat cukup uang untuk makanan seharinya.


Kian - increasingly
Meroyak - to spread
Terpaksa - forced

Tukang lap mobil - car polisher
Asongan - street sellers with trays of cigarettes, lollies etc.
Pengamen - singing beggar

Nasib - fate

Biaya - expense, cost, fees


Sebagian besar anak jalanan bekerja sebagai pengamen nyanyian. Mereka bernyanyi lagu dangdut di warung, rumah makan, bis kota, kereta api atau di lampau merah. Tema lagu yang dipilih tentang nasib ditinggal ibu atau nasib hidup sendiri di Yogyakarta.

"Sungguh terpaksa aku menyanyi
mengharapan Tuan bermurah hati"
"Aku ditinggalkan ibu di tengah malam.
Aku terpaksa menjadi anak jalanan"

Mereka biasanya mendapat anatara Rp 5.000 ($1.00) dan Rp 8.000 per hari. Tetapi "Kalau rajin, tidak tidur banyak, setiap hari bisa dapat Rp 15.000." ujar salah satu anak jalanan.

Banyak anak jalanan adalah anak yatim. Namun, sebagian anak jalanan masuk Yogyakarta di bawah "payung" orang tuanya. Mereka datang dari keluarga yang ekonominya sangat lemah dan beberapa orangtua mengeksploitasi anaknya untuk turun ke jalanan.



Dangdut - a popular style of rhythmic dance music. It has a strong beat reminiscent of Hindi & Arabic music.



Sungguh - really
Bermurah hati - generous




 Ujar - said
Salah satu - one of

Anak yatim -orphan

Payung - umbrella


Lemah - weak


Sialnya, ada juga beberapa anak jalanan yang terlibat dalam tindakan kriminal. Ada sindikat anak-anak jalanan yang berkumpul di sekitar perempatan lampau merah. Di balik lap yang dipakai biasanya terselip batu atau alat runcing lainnya. Mereka menorehkan benda rucing di mobil-mobil dan menuntut uang dari pengemudi. Ada juga yang melempar batu ke arah pengendara yang enggan mengeluarkan uang. Mereka juga berpura-pura menjual botol air putih atau surat kabar dan berusaha menjambret barang-barang dari mobil. Yang lain menjadi penipu dan berpura-pura mengumpul dana untuk pembangunan mesjid, walaupun sebenarnya untuk mereka sendiri.


Sialnya - unfortunately
Terlibat - involved
Tindakan - activities, action

Terselip - inserted, slipped in
Runcing - sharply pointed

Menorehkan - to slit open, cut

Menuntut - to demand
Melempar - to throw
Enggan - reluctant
Berpura-pura - to pretend

Menjambret - to snatch
Penipu - Con-artist, deceiver


Jumlah anak jalanan yang terus bertambah menggugah para aktivis perempuan untuk ikut mengurangi beban mereka. Juga untuk membantu mengurangi masalah-masalah sosial yang muncul karena kehadiran anak jalanan tersebut. Mereka mendirikan Kelompok Peduli Anak (KAP) dan bermaksud memberikan anak bekal, ketramplian dan beasiswa dengan dukungan masyarakat


Menggugah - to arouse one's feelings


Muncul - appear
Mendirikan - to establish
Bermaksud - to intend to
Bekal - provisions
Ketrampilan - skills
Beasiswa - scholarship
Dukungan - support


Selain kelompok tersebut, ada orang lain yang ingin membantu anak jalanan. Antaranya adalah seorang pendeta, Romo Mangun Wijaya, yang menyewa rumah kontrak untuk anak jalanan. Tidak ada pemuda homoseksual yang mengusiknya saat tidur, petugas ketertiban dan keamanan, polisi khusus kereta api maupun preman jalanan yang menggangunya. "Rumah singgah" itu merupakan bagian ikhtiar memulihkan suasana resosialisasi untuk anak jalanan. Mereka bebas, tetapi diajarkan cara hidup yang teratur. Bersama sukarelawan lain, dia mengajar anak jalanan supaya mereka bisa membaca dan menulis. Proyek ini sudah berhasil dan berberapa anak jalanan tinggal di sana. Lagipula, tuilsan, puisi, gambaran dan foto-foto anak jalanan diterbitkan di seri buku JeJAL (Jerit Jalanan)


Pendeta - priest

Romo - term of address for a Catholic priest
Menyewa - to rent

Mengusik - disturb
Ketertiban - Order
Keamanan - Safety
Preman - "thug, mugger
Rumah singgah - drop-in home
Ikhtiar - initiative


Memulihkan - restore

Suasana - atmosphere

Sukarelawan - volunteer

Diterbitkan - published

Jerit - screams, clamour

Yayasan - institute


"JeJAL diterbitkan oleh Yayasan Humana sebagai sarana untuk menyalurkan dinamika dalam masyarakat, mencerdaskan bangsa, menumbukhan kesadaran bermasyarakat, sekaligus sebagai data kajian." Yang berikut adalah beberapa kutipan dari JeJAL.


Sarana - means
Menyalurkan - channel

Mencerdaskan - educate
Menumbukhan - challenge

Kesadaran - consciousness
Kajian - studies


Seperti datang sebagai sahabat

Begitu rinci kau paparkan kehendak

Tengoklah kami

Kami cacing tanah

Bukan para sampah

Jangan hanya berucap


Berapa banyak sampah diperut kita

Jan 98 Dodo'X (Jan/VI/1998)



Sahabat - good friend

Rinci - detail

Paparkan - to explain

Tengok - to look at

Cacing tanah - earth worm

Sampah - rubbish

Berucap - to repeat




Anak Jalanan

Waktu kecil saya sudah bisa mandiri hidup di jalan. Jauh dari orang tua, sampai sekarang saya masih duduk di kelas VI (enam) SD. Tapi sayang aku tak kuat hati menerusakan sekolah, sebenarnya kalau dihitung saya menduduki kelas SMA. Orangtua saya mampu membiayai sekolah saya tapi saya sudah bosan sekolah lagi lalu saya pergi ke pulau Jawa sekarang aku di jalan. Disinilah buatku yang pantas tinggal yaitu Malioboro, Yogyakarta. (Apr./VI/1998)




Mandiri - be independent

Tapi - (Tetapi) but

Tak (Tidak) - tidak

Puisi Purosani

Ada harap di dada kami
Ketika lampu kuning telah berganti
Di prapatan Purosani
Se iklasnya om .... Buat makan
Itulah ciri khas bahasa kami
Adakah terketuk hati tuan
Adakah terbuka dompet tuan
Kami berharap ... semoga
Purosani kantor kami
Purosani rumah kami
Purosani rejek kami
Purosani ....
Di latarmu kami titipan
Masa depan hoyak dan angan kami

Semoga .... Capri JeJAL Des/VI/1998




Prapatan - (Perempatan)

Iklas - (ikhlas) sincere
Om - term of address for a
Westernised man
Ciri khas - characteristic
Terketuk - to knock on
Semoga - I hope that ..., make it happen ...

Rejek - livelihood

Latar - yard, area, background
Titipan - entrust
Hoyak - chase after
Angan- fantasy, dream


Yang penting ialah, harapan untuk masa depan. Dengan ikhtiar seperti penerbitan JeJAL dan rumah singgah, anak jalanan ada kesempatan untuk menjaga diri sendiri.


Penerbitan - publication

Kesempatan - opportunity

Menjaga - to look after

Latihan Read the article and answer the following questions in Indonesian.

  1. Menurut pendapat Anda, mengapa anak jalanan tidak senang dengan nasibnya?
  2. Mengapa lagu yang dipilih tentang tema keterpaksaan menjadi anak jalanan dan tidak tentang tema lain?
  3. Gambarkanlah "sindikat anak-anak jalanan".
  4. Siapa anggota KAP dan apa tujuan mereka?
  5. Mengapa "rumah singgah" didirikan?
  6. Apa tujuan JeJAL?
  7. Apa inti (arti) sajak Eksploitasi?
  8. Mengapa "Topan" menjadi anak jalanan?
  9. Apa "Purosani" di Puisi Purosani?
  10. Menurut pendapat Anda, ada harapan untuk anak jalanan?




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For Your Information

The following was taken from the Realia Indonesian language school's coursebook for foreigners. It contains very interesting and useful information that I thought I'd include it in this section for this first issue.

Comments And Statements To Foreigners

During the colonial time, Central and East Javanese, including Yogyakarta, in particular, called white-skinned foreigners "Londo". This word derived from "belanda" or "Hollandia", meaning the Dutch. This word has been inherited by the younger generation. From time to time, from place to place, Central Javanese and Yogyakarta call any white-skinned foreigners "Londo", even though they know that they are not Dutch.

In West Java and Jakarta areas, as well as in outer islands, "Londo" is not usually used. The word, "bule", meaning "albino", is a nickname for white skinned foreigners. The reason they call white foreigners "bule", is perhaps due to the similarity of white skin colour with albino.

Children all over Indonesia usually make remarks when they see foreigners. The remarks, such as "Hullo!", "Hello, Mister!" , "I love you!" "Good Morning!", "Thank You!", "Where are you going?", etc., are not necessarily understood by the children. When they make their remarks, it is only a matter of curiosity, rather than genuine greetings or questions.

Children in the villages or kampungs might like giggling and following foreigners wherever they go. They simply indicate curiosity about the "different" visitors. Some children are also scared when they see foreigners. They may run away and hide, or even cry when they cannot avoid them.

There are some preconceived stereotypes resulting from Indonesian's exposure to western movies. They think that all westerners believe in free sex relationships, loose morality, alcoholism, Christianity, discipline, hard work, high technology, advanced science, music, openness, democracy, environmental issues, etc. Some are positive and some are negative perceptions about Westerners.



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Up And Coming Events

February 19th: The Canberra MLTA is having a one day conference for teachers of foreign languages.

Please Note: For Future Reference: This section could contain any information on up and coming events in the calendar, advertisements, and cultural information, which would be of general interest to Indonesian teachers.

Advertisements: placed by teachers and non-profit organizations are FREE, but commercial enterprises will be charged a fee to advertise.



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Useful  Web Sites

1. http://web.uvic.ca/lancenrd/Indonesian/

This web site is excellent. It has a course for beginners in Indonesian, covering the first two hundred hours. There are fourteen interactive lessons and they range from very basic right up to upper intermediate. Also, the topics tie in well with the national curriculum. Well worth a visit!

Thanks for the "Hot Tip", Paul Arbon, North Sydney Boys' High School!!

2. www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/indo/indonesian.html

This is certainly a comprehensive site, one of the best I've seen and will give you a whole host of leads into other areas of great interest. I highly recommend this site.

3. http://indonesia.elga.net.id/index.html

The Indonesian Homepage boasts to be the FIRST and most comprehensive web site on Indonesia. Well worth a look.

Do YOU know of any "must see" web sites? Please let me know, so that we can share it with the rest of the subscribers J



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Year 7/8 Research Assignment

by courtesy of Judy Ebner

Pulau Bali

Date Due:

Approximate Length: 10 pages minimum

References: School library

See Bibliography Sheet

Your local library

Travel section of newspaper

Travel brochures on Bali

Airline offices (especially Garuda)

Indonesian Travel Centre Pty Ltd

San Michele Travel Centre

Other Travel Agencies

Indonesian Tourist Promotion Centre

The Indonesian Embassy (Canberra)

Television programmes



Pay TV - Discovery Channel

The internet

If all else fails, see your teacher!

Note: Refer to the internet or physical yellow pages for some of the above addresses

Skills To Be Demonstrated:

a) To be able to use the complete resources of a library in order to gain relevant information on a given topic

b) To be able to scan written material and elicit the relevant information in very brief note form. (Point form presentation of material.)

c) To be able to elicit a specific written response from photographs.

d) To be able to transfer written information to a visual presentation. (use of maps.)

e) To present a a variety of information on one topic in a very clear and organised manner.

f) To be able to recognise bias, eg. aim of publications such as glossy travel brochures.

g) To prepare and include a Bibliography.



To create and document an interesting itinerary around the island of Bali. The trip you create must be enjoyable and the traveller must conclude with a very good knowledge of the island of Bali. (You are to include all of the topic areas mentioned below in order to achieve this.) You document the itinerary by briefly mentioning in point form-points of interest of each place, festival or dance visited.

** There are four parts to this assignment, all of which must be completed. **



By using three well-labelled maps, illustrate each of the following:

i) Bali in relation to the world. On a map of the world, show both Indonesia and Bali (use separate colour code) in relation to Australia and the rest of the world. You must label all of your maps!

ii) Bali in relation to Indonesia. On a map of Indonesia, show exactly where Bali is in relation to the other islands of the archipelago.

iii) Bali, the island itself. A map of the island, showing all the places visited on your itinerary, with your planned itinerary outlined.

(Use arrows or coloured/numbered coding.)


You are to integrate this information into your itinerary. We will discuss ways of doing this in class.



In your itinerary, you are to visit all of the following. refer to how you will be travelling on the island through your itinerary. Think of an enjoyable way to travel!

a) Mountains and Lakes (Gunung-Gunung)

- The most important mountain of Bali.

- Two other high altitude mountains.

- At least two beautiful lakes.

b) Villages (Desa)

Balinese life centres around the village and its people. You are to visit a wide range of villages in order to show the diversity of Balinese culture and lifestyle. Be sure to visit:

- A village with a famous Palace of Justice. (Explain why this Palace of Justice is of artistic merit.)

- A village world famous for its art community.

- A village renowned for its intricate jewellery.

- A lakeside village well known for its original inhabitants.

- Another peaceful lakeside village.

- The villages from where you can take a boat to the neighbouring islands of Lombok and Java.

- The coastal villages famous for their beaches and tourists-one of these will include the village where Donald Friend lived for most of his life.

- The old capital of Bali.

- The present day capital of Bali. What does its name mean and from which language?

- Several villages famous for their temples, eg. Mengwi.

c) Temples (Pura)

- The mother temple of all Bali.

- Two beautiful temples by the sea.

d) Dances (Tarian)

You will want to see at least four different dances so you will have to visit at least four differnet villages, as each dance in Bali originates from a different village. It is best to see that dance in its village of origin. When discussing each dance, briefly outline, in point form, the origins and characteristics of that dance.

e) Ceremonies and Festivals (Upacara)

"There is an unending change of festivals in Bali. "Be sure to visit:

* a cremation

* a tooth filing ceremony

* one other ceremony

Discuss something about these ceremonies.

f) Other Places of Interest

* The Elephant Cave

* The Monkey Forest



A Conclusion - Personal View

Think about these questions and try to incorporate your answers into your personal conclusion about Bali. (About 1 page is required here.)



a) What are some of the problems a traveller may face in Bali? eg. health, water, differences in climate, food?

b) Why do you think so many people from all over the world visit Bali?

c) What problems might arise from so many visitors to these resort areas? Look at this from both the physical and social environment.

d) What would you like to see in Bali?

e) What are the customs requirements when visiting Bali?

f) Do you imagine the island to be overrun by tourists with their dollars or young Australian surfers? What effect could these people have on Bali?

g) What used to be the connection between Bronte Surf Life Saving Club (in NSW) and Bali?


Remember to include a complete list of all the resource materials you have used for this assignment. Both the librarian and your teacher will explain how the bibliography must be set out.


Part D

Group Work

Working in groups of three or four people, you are to create a practical component for this assignment. The following are a few suggestions. Your teacher will help you with your ideas. This list is not exhaustive.

- a jigsaw of Bali

- a travel brochure/poster advertising Bali

- a mobile for the classroom

- a booklet of computerized crosswords based on Bali

- a relief map of Bali

- a game, travelling through Bali

- preparing and photographing a Balinese meal

- making a video for an advertisement

- learning a Balinese dance, etc., etc.




Term Assignment Using "A Traveller's Guide To The Orient" Video (or any travel video) & Kenalilah Textbook, chptr 3 "Berlibur"

Ayo Berlibur! - Let's Holiday! J

You are going to design a perfect holiday to Indonesia.

You will be working on this assignment both in-class and at home. It will be a step-by-step project and you will be given strict guidelines along the way. The information brochure you will produce in week ___, will include elements of geography, culture, history, language and the odd bit of titillating information on a variety of subjects.

1) Watch the video "A Traveller's Guide to the Orient" Part 2.

Take notes on places of interest, interesting events, etc, which you could include in your holiday. (satu pelajaran)

2) Study your textbook chapter on "Berlibur" for some "useful vocabulary" to include for the visitor abroad. Make a comprehensive list.

Make a cassette tape of the vocabulary with correct pronunciation. (P.R.)

3) Read widely from your textbook and "Suara Siswa" relevant pages to gain a comprehensive understanding on the cultural aspects of your intended holiday. Make a list of "Do's and Don'ts" which would be appropriate for anyone embarking on the adventure you are planning.

(dua pelajaran)

4) Using the resources above and the library resources, make a small map of the route and surrounding areas you are planning to include in your brochure. (P.R.)

5) Choose a famous landmark and write a brief paragraph in your own words in Indonesian about the history of the place, which is a "must to visit" and why. (Include a diagram or picture.) (satu pelajaran)

6) After you have made an extensive study of accommodation, write an advertisement in Indonesian for your chosen accommodation, outlining its extensive features and facilities. (satu pelajaran)

7) No trip is complete without souvenirs. Create a few tempting one-liners about the availability of certain kinds of souvenirs unique to Indonesia and a bargain at your chosen destination. (P.R.)

Put all of the above together and present your information in the form of a brochure and tape pack for the intending tourist.

Due Date:




Assignment For Intermediate Students


Improving Your Vocabulary Using Short Stories/Articles


1. Choose a Feature Article/Story of about 2-6 pages in length.

2. Read it carefully using your dictionary to look up "key words".

3. List the "key words" you have looked up in your dictionary.

4. When you have finished reading the story, close the book. Make a list of the "key points" made in the article, or the main events which happened in the story.

5. Now rewrite the article/story in your own words in Indonesian. Make sure that you only have one main point in each of your paragraphs. Each paragraph should have a "topic sentence" and all paragraphs should follow a logical sequence of ideas.

6. Read through your re-written article/story and check for errors. (Pay particular attention to the verbs.)

7. Now choose five new words from your dictionary word list, which you would like to learn.

8. Write five new sentences using your new words.

9. Try to use each one of them in your conversations over the next 24 hours.

10. Hand in your story and new word list along with the five new sentences and a copy of the original story for marking.


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What's New At Kambing?


Well, as you might know, the "WHIP" programme is the most exciting innovation on our web site at present. You will find it under the "FOR STUDENTS" button. "WHIP" stands for "Weekly Homework for Indonesian Practice".

It has been received with great excitement from right around the country, with quite a few classes subscribing to do it at school in their computer labs, as well as the students who have opted to do it at home. (It is a "homework" programme, after all!)

For subscribers of Bahasa Raya, I am including WEEK ONE's programme, so that you can see how the whole thing works and I have always believed in the principle of:

"try before you buy!"

Well here it is,




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Week One: "Me and You"

PART ONE: Weekly Grammar Point

PART TWO: Latihan (Exercises)

PART THREE: Revision

PART FOUR: Vocabulary Building

Part Five: Answer Key

Copyright Information



PART ONE: Weekly Grammar Point

One of the first fundamental difficulties we encounter when we land in Indonesia for the first time, is how to address anyone and how to refer to yourself. For this reason I have chosen this topic to deal with at the very beginning. Actually, it is quite an indepth topic and we will deal with it over time, but for the moment you need to know the fundamentals.


When you are in Indonesia, the safest form of "you" to use with anyone you don't know yet, is "Anda".


Anda tinggal di Jalan Thamrin?

Do you live in Thamrin street?

This word was actually introduced into the language in the 1950's, as a neutral form of the word, "you", and as such, is not used with your close friends, because it lacks intimacy.

"Anda" is used widely in the media, and when making announcements to the public.

With close friends or family, you would use "kamu" for "you", or if the person you are speaking to is much younger than you. For example, a teacher might use "kamu", when addressing one of his/her students.


Kamu nakal, Tono.

You're naughty, Tono.


The most neutral and formal form of the word, "I" is "saya".


Saya suka makan es krim.

I like to eat ice cream.


We are very lucky, as learners of Indonesian, to find out that this little word "saya", can be used for two other forms in English: "me" and "my"

Let's see how the same word is used for "me", luckily for us, without changing the word.


Dia memberi buku kepada saya.

He gave the book to me.


Now, if you put the word after an object (so you change the position of the word around), it then becomes "my".


Buku saya merah. = My book is red.

Bapak saya gila. = My Dad is crazy.

A Word of Warning!

If you are not careful about the position of your word "saya", you could be very embarrassed!


Anjing saya besar.

My dog is big.


Saya anjing besar.

I am a big dog.


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PART TWO: Latihan (Exercises)

Exercise One: (Latihan Satu) Anda / kamu

Use the appropriate form of the word "you" in the missing parts of the following sentences.

1. Teacher to Student:

Apakah ____________ ada buku?

Do you have a book?

2. Your mother to you when you come home:

Halo. Apakah _________ mau makan sekarang?

Hello. Do you want to eat now?

3. You to a man on the bus:

Apakah ___________ tinggal jauh dari sini?

Do you live far from here?

4. Announcement on television:

Kalau _________ mau merasa segar, ada sabun baru, namanya "chickybabe".

If you want to feel fresh, there's a new soap called "chickybabe."

5. Your friend speaking to you:

_________ sudah makan?

Have you already eaten?


Exercise 2: (Latihan dua) Saya

Work out in the following sentences, if the word "saya" means "I" or "My" or "Me". Highlight the one which is appropriate to the particular sentence in question.

eg. Nama saya Freddy. = I, my, me.


1. Buku saya besar. = I, my, me.

2. Saya makan es krim. = I, my, me.

3. Uang itu untuk saya.= I, my, me.

4. Kakak saya malas. = I, my, me.

5. Siapa saya? = I, my, me.

Exercise 3: (Latihan tiga) Saya / Anda / Kamu

Translate the sentences, which are written in English into Indonesian, and the sentences, which are written in Indonesian into English, being very careful to use the right words for the right situations.


1. My book is here.

2. Post office clerk to customer:

"You can buy this stamp with rupiah."

3. Untuk saya coklat enak sekali.

4. I like to eat my chocolate.

5. Speaking to your little brother:

"You can go now!"

6. Kamu membeli pakaian untuk saya.

7. Explaining to a policeman.

"My car is red and fast."

8. Anda perlu membaca buku saya.

9. Saya memberi buku saya kepada saya.

10. "Who are you?"

(Answers next week)



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PART THREE: Revision

Commencing next week!



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Vocabulary Building

Kata-Kata Baru

Adjectives (Kata Sifat)


Family Words (Kata-Kata Keluarga)

besar =



bapak =


kecil =



ibu =


tinggi =



kakak laki-laki =

older brother

pendek =



adik laki-laki =

younger brother

gemuk =



kakak perempuan =

older sister

kurus =



adik perempuan =

younger sister

pandai =



bapak tiri =


bodoh =



ibu tiri =


gila =



keluarga =


malas =



bayi =


baik hati =

kind hearted


anak sulung=

oldest child

sehat =



anak bungsu =

youngest child

senang =



orang tua =


cantik =



ortu (abbrev.) =


ganteng =





lucu =





muda =





tua =





For Fun:

Let's write a crazy story, using as many of these new describing words as we can. Try to read it and translate it as you go, by writing the meanings of the words you don't know on top of them in pencil.

Halo. Nama saya Wayan. Saya ada dua keluarga.

Saya tinggal dengan keluarga nomor satu, dan setiap akhir minggu saya mengunjungi keluarga nomor dua.

Di keluarga nomor satu-ada lima orang: Bapak tiri saya, namanya Bruce, ibu saya, namanya Sulastri, adik perempuan saya, namanya Made, adik laki-laki saya, namanya Nyoman, dan saya. Saya anak sulung. Saya ganteng, pandai, baik-hati dan lucu.

Di keluarga nomor dua-ada enam orang. Ada bapak saya, Lindsay, ibu tiri saya, Suzy, dan anaknya, anak sulung, namanya Wayan juga, adik perempuannya Made dan Nyoman, dan juga Ketut, anak bungsu.

Saya suka keluarga saya, tetapi tidak suka semua orang di dalamnya.

Wayan di keluarga nomor dua, gemuk dan gila. Dia kurang sehat karena gemuk dan malas! Saya tidak suka pada dia! Made dan Nyoman di keluarga itu, baiklah-mereka baik-hati dan senang. Mereka adalah teman saya. Saya suka pada mereka.

Di keluarga satu, saya suka ibu saya, tetapi tidak suka Bruce, bapak tiri saya! Dia bodoh. Made asyik, tetapi Nyoman kurang baik! Nyoman kurus, tinggi dan ganteng, tetapi dia suka pada dia! Made lucu. Saya suka pada Made.

Ortu saya baiklah, tetapi saya kurang suka Bruce. Dia minum bir dan menjadi gemuk dan kurang sehat. (Seperti Wayan di keluarga dua!)

Apakah keluarga Anda juga sebesar???


Extension Work:

Using this as your model - try to write a story about your family (pretend, if you like), and try to use as much of the new vocabulary as you can. Give it to your teacher to mark.



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Coming Next Week


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Well, that's all for this week! Sampai bertemu lagi, pada minggu depan.

Selamat belajar!

Bu Suzanne


Please note that this material is subject to copyright laws.

Permission is granted for the purchaser to reproduce it for the purpose of individual private study. You are not, however, permitted to reproduce it or send it to others in any form, including transmission via the internet. Infringements of this copyright will be pursued to the full extent of the law.

Kambing International Press © February, 2000